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猪流感的命名——一个有趣的话题

2009-06-28 13:20:32 来源:网络 文章作者:匿名

[标签:猪流感]

  香港消息-如何称呼在世界各地拉响警报的新型流感?这在全世界已经带上政治,经济和外交的意味了。

  猪肉生产商们质疑“猪流感”这一名词是否适当。他们认为这种新型的病毒还没有被从在墨西哥或者其它地方的猪中分离出来。而设在亚特兰大的疾病预防和控制中心的认为,这种新型病毒虽然绝大部分是由猪流感病毒的基因序列组成,却也有人类流感和禽流感的基因序列在内。

  作为世界上最大的肉类出口国之一,泰国的政府官员们已经开始以“墨西哥流感”来称呼这种疾病。一位以色列卫生部副部长,极端正统派的犹太人说,他们的国家会如法炮制,不让犹太人说“猪”字。然而,他的呼吁似乎基本上被忽略了。

  星期二国土安全部秘书长珍妮·纳波利塔诺和农业部长汤姆·维尔萨克在华盛顿的新闻发布会上用学名称呼这种病毒为“H1N1病毒”。

  维尔萨克说,这不是一种食源性疾病或病毒。称其为猪流感是不正确的,因为这本来不是这样子的。

  负责世界范围内兽医卫生问题的世界动物卫生组织在星期一发表了一份声明称,这种新型的病毒应该称为“北美流感”,以保持流行感冒一贯以首次发现地命名的传统,包括1918-1919的西班牙流感,1957-1958的亚洲流感和1967-1968的香港流感。

  这场争论很可能还会持续,因为科学家和卫生部门仍试图追踪这种疾病。虽然所有的迹象都集中地指向墨西哥,病毒的遗传物质却包含部分有欧亚起源的猪流感病毒。而且,流感病毒往往来自亚洲。

  星期二中国国家总理温家宝呼吁加强措施以预防和控制任何可能的猪流感病例在该国出现。

  许多医学历史学家认为,亚洲和香港流感最初在毗邻香港的中国东南部爆发,那里人口密度非常高,在农村地区居住在靠近猪和鸡的人们可能传染上动物的病毒。一些历史学家还认为,西班牙病毒同样发端于中国东南部。

  本周墨西哥驻北京的大使乔治·瓜哈尔多直言不讳地说,这种病毒并非发源于墨西哥。他在星期二的电话采访中说,疾病被感染者从“亚欧大陆”某地带至他的国家。

  乔治·瓜哈尔多在电话采访中说,他的政府接到美国和加拿大专家的消息说,病毒的基因序列显示,它来自亚欧大陆。

  然而,亚洲的流感专家说,这种新型病毒很可能并没有在亚洲从动物传染到人。

  “如果是这样的话,你会看到亚洲有很多传染案例了。”撒巴希·摩萨利亚如是说。他是作为联合国粮农组织一部分的亚洲和太平洋地区跨境疾病急救中心的区域主管。

  香港大学的微生物学家袁国勇说,学名中的“N1”即病毒的神经氨酸酶基因片段来自亚欧大陆的猪流感。它控制着病毒摆脱受感染的细胞的能力。但是他补充说,太多的猪被跨境转移,很难精确定位病毒的来源。

  现在似乎还没有这种新型病毒在中国爆发的迹象。中国最大的猪肉加工厂,河南众品食品有限公司的副总经理本博客(音)说,最近没有疾病在猪或猪农中间传染。

  两年前,中国数以百万的猪死于传染病,以致于猪肉价格上涨了90%。兽医们将猪的死亡归因于蓝耳病。这种病不传染人,但也是猪流感。中国政府并没有发表公开报告,评估疫情,并只提供极少细节给国际组织。

  The Naming of Swine Flu, a Curious Matter

  The Naming of Swine Flu, a Curious Matter

  Published: April 28, 2009

  HONG KONG — What to call the new strain of flu raising alarms around the world has taken on political, economic and diplomatic overtones.

  Asking for More Funding, U.S. Steps Up Flu Response (April 29, 2009)

  Times Topics: Swine FluPork producers question whether the term "swine flu" is appropriate, given that the new virus has not yet been isolated in samples taken from pigs in Mexico or elsewhere. While the new virus seems to be most heavily composed of genetic sequences from swine influenza virus material, it also has human and avian influenza genetic sequences as well, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.

  Government officials in Thailand, one of the world’s largest meat exporters, have started referring to the disease as “Mexican flu.” An Israeli deputy health minister — an ultra-Orthodox Jew — said his country would do the same, to keep Jews from having to say the word “swine.” However, his call seemed to have been largely ignored.

  Janet Napolitano, the secretary for homeland security, and Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack went out of their way at a press conference in Washington on Tuesday to refer to the virus by its scientific name, as the "H1N1 virus."

  "This is not a food-borne illness, virus -- it is not correct to refer to it as swine flu because really that's not what this is about," Mr. Vilsack said.

  The World Organization for Animal Health, which handles veterinary issues around the world, issued a statement late Monday suggesting that the new disease should be labeled “North American influenza,” in keeping with a long medical tradition of naming influenza pandemics for the regions where they were first identified. This has included the Spanish flu of 1918 to 1919, the Asian flu of 1957 to 1958 and the Hong Kong flu of 1967 to 1968.

  The debate is likely to continue as scientists and health authorities try to trace the disease. While all signs now point to Mexico as the epicenter, the genetic material in the virus there includes part of a swine influenza virus of Eurasian origin. And influenza viruses tend to emerge from Asia.

  Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of China called for stepped up measures on Tuesday to prevent and control any possible cases of swine flu that might show up in the country.

  Many medical historians believe that the Asian and Hong Kong flus started in southeastern China near Hong Kong, where very high densities of people live in close proximity to hogs and chickens in rural areas and can share their viruses. Some historians also suggest that the Spanish flu also started in southeastern China.

  The Mexican ambassador to Beijing, Jorge Guajardo, has been outspoken this week in suggesting that the disease did not originate in Mexico. He said in a telephone interview on Tuesday that the disease was brought to his country by an infected person from somewhere in “Eurasia,” the land mass of Europe and Asia.

  Ambassador Guajardo said in a telephone interview that his government had been told by American and Canadian experts that the genetic sequence of the virus pointed to Eurasian origin.

  “This did not happen in Mexico,” he said, adding, “It was a human who brought this to Mexico.”

  But flu specialists in Asia said that the new virus probably did not make the jump from animals to people in Asia.

  “If that is the case, you would see a lot of infections in Asia by now,” said Subash Morzaria, the regional manager for Asia and the Pacific at the Emergency Center for Transboundary Diseases, which is part of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization.

  The neuraminidase genetic segment of the virus, which gives the virus its “N1” name and controls the ability of the virus to break out of infected cells, comes from a Eurasian strain of swine flu, said Dr. Yuen Kwok-yung, a microbiologist at Hong Kong University. But he added that enough pigs are moved across national borders that it is impossible to place the location more precisely.

  There seems little indication of any outbreak of the new flu in China. There have been no recent surges in illnesses among pigs or pig farmers, according to Ben Boake, the executive vice president of the Henan Zhongpin Food Company Ltd., one of China’s largest pork processors.

  Millions of pigs died in China two years ago in an epidemic so severe that it pushed pork prices up 90 percent. Veterinarians attributed the deaths at the time mainly to blue-ear disease, which does not affect humans, but also to swine flu. The Chinese government did not issue a public report assessing the outbreak and provided very few details to international organizations.

百科词条:猪流感